Prosecuting homeless people for sleeping on the streets when there is no shelter available is a form of cruel and unusual punishment that violates the Constitution, a federal appeals court said this week.
The case stems from two ordinances in Boise, Idaho, that make it a crime to sleep or camp in buildings, streets and other public places. Six homeless people who had been convicted under the laws sued the city in 2009, saying their constitutional rights had been violated.
After years of legal wrangling, a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit said in a 32-page opinion on Tuesday that Boise’s ordinances “criminalize the simple act of sleeping outside on public property, whether bare or with a blanket or other basic bedding.” The panel added that “a municipality cannot criminalize such behavior consistently with the Eighth Amendment when no sleeping space is practically available in any shelter.”
In their summary of the opinion, the judges wrote, “As long as there is no option of sleeping indoors, the government cannot criminalize indigent, homeless people for sleeping outdoors, on public property, on the false premise they had a choice in the matter.”
The ruling was a victory for homeless advocates, who have long said that laws like the City of Boise’s waste public money, do not alleviate root causes of homelessness like shortages of affordable housing, and punish people simply for being poor.
These issues have taken on increased significance as urban neighborhoods gentrify, said Maria Foscarinis, the executive director of the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, a Washington nonprofit that helped argue the Boise case.
A survey of 187 cities by the group found that, from 2006 to 2016, the number of bans on camping in public increased by 69 percent. Bans on sleeping in public places increased by 31 percent.
In December, the Department of Housing and Urban Development said that homelessness had increased in 2017 for the first time in seven years, according to an annual count.
“Gentrification means less affordable housing,” Ms. Foscarinis said. “It also means a lot of pressure to remove people who are visibly poor from prominent city areas. These trends are promoting criminalization and promoting these kinds of clashes.”
The Boise ruling would apply to all areas covered by the Ninth Circuit, which is based in San Francisco and includes the western portion of the country, including California, Arizona and Washington.
Cities had already been reviewing the homelessness laws they had on the books. John Coté, a spokesman for the San Francisco city attorney’s office, said Wednesday that the office was reviewing the city’s laws to make sure they did not run afoul of the Ninth Circuit ruling.
San Francisco voters passed a law in 2016 that prohibits tents on sidewalks, but the tents can be removed only if the city offers placement in shelters or other options for housing. The city must also offer to transport people to the homes of friends or family who could take them in, and give 24-hour notice before removing the tents.
“Our approach is different than Boise’s, but we’re analyzing the ruling to see if it may have implications for San Francisco,” Mr. Coté said.
Ms. Foscarinis said her group had identified more than 20 other city ordinances that could be affected by the ruling.
Mike Journee, a spokesman for the City of Boise, said Wednesday that the city was still reviewing the Ninth Circuit’s ruling and that it was “not ready to address” how its ordinances would be affected. Mr. Journee said the city could ask the full Ninth Circuit court to review the panel’s decision, or appeal the ruling to the Supreme Court.
“We’re taking a closer look at that and seeing how we go from here,” Mr. Journee said.
The six homeless people who were the plaintiffs in the Boise case have all lived in or around Boise since 2007, according to the Ninth Circuit panel’s opinion, written by Judge Marsha S. Berzon. They were all convicted of violating city ordinances between 2007 and 2009, when they sued.
Judge Berzon said in the opinion that Boise has a growing homeless population. The city has three homeless shelters, which are routinely at capacity.
The shelters have time restrictions of when homeless people can check in and how long they can stay. At two of the shelters, individuals are not allowed to return to the shelter for at least 30 days unless they complete an “intensive, Christ-based residential recovery program,” according to Judge Berzon’s opinion.
At least one of the homeless people suing the city declined to enter that program because of his religious beliefs, and he was then cited for violating a city ordinance when he was sleeping outside.
The opinion acknowledged that the City of Boise has rules that direct the police not to cite homeless people if they are sleeping outside when the shelters are full. But it states that people “could still be turned away for reasons other than shelter capacity, such as for exceeding the shelter’s stay limits, or for failing to take part in a shelter’s mandatory religious programs.”
The case had been closely watched, and in 2015, the Justice Department under President Barack Obama filed a statement of interest in it, stating that “punishing conduct that is a universal and unavoidable consequence of being human violates the Eighth Amendment.”
Photo: In a case stemming from city ordinances in Boise, Idaho, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit said that laws banning sleeping or camping in public places violate the Constitution if no shelter space is available. Source: Adam Cotterell/Boise State Public Radio, via Associated Press.
Aloha and Welcome to Paradise. Unless You’re Homeless
Rights Battles Emerge in Cities Where Homelessness Can Be a Crime
USA: In Search of Eviction Data
UN Expert: USA Poor More Destitute under Trump
CA: World’s 5th Economy, Homeless No. 1 USA
USA: Time for Change - Race & Homelessness
USA: Tenants Say Trump Budget Dead on arrival
Not Just a Condition, but Cause of Poverty
USA: Charges against Homeless Feeder Dropped
Extreme Poverty Growing in USA
USA: Rep. Bill to Make Disabled Homeless
Trump`s Budget: Homeless in the USA
Trumps Public Housing “Death Budget”
Homelessness: Not Just a Christmas Crisis
USA: Albuquerque Helps Homeless & Saves Money
Most New Yorkers on Edge of Homelessness
USA: Oakland`s “Mega-evictor”
USA: Homeless Camps Offering Democracy Lesson
Boston USA: Campaigning to Save Public Housing
USA`s Hidden Homeless: Life in the Starlight Motel
How Eviction Feeds Poverty
USA: The Eviction Economy
UN Report: Homelessness and Impunity Spreading
10 Years on: The Myths of Katrina
USA: DoJ Slams Criminalizing Homelessness
USA: 1 in 7 Detroiters Faces Eviction
New Report Card: USA “Failed” Homeless
Boston (USA): Scholars Call Homeless Emergency
Boston Finally Acts on Stranded Homeless