Uprising, Conflict

What is affected
Housing private
Land Private
Type of violation Forced eviction
Date 25 February 2012
Region MENA [ Middle East/North Africa ]
Country Libya
Location countrywidde

Affected persons

Total 100000
Men 0
Women 0
Children 0
Proposed solution
Details libya-overview-nov2011.pdf


Forced eviction
Land losses

- Land area (square meters)

- Total value
Housing losses
- Number of homes
- Total value €

Duty holder(s) /responsible party(ies)

Interntl org.
Private party
Brief narrative

IDMC reported 278,000 IDPs as of 31 December 2020, reflecting 39,000 new displacements in 2020. IDMC, “Libya” Country Information, https://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/libya.

After December 2020 returns, 245,463 remained. “Number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Libya as of February 2021, by region,” Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1222286/number-of-internally-displaced-persons-in-libya-by-region/. No “mass” displacements are reported in 2021. By August 2021, returnees increased to 643,123 individuals, but only 715 more than the previous quarter. This indicates a slight plateauing of the return trend as several IDPs face protracted displacement, the reasons being complex challenges such as lack of security or social cohesion in the place of origin, damaged infrastructure, unavailability of basic services in places of origin, and uninhabitable original houses to return to, due to damage and destruction incurred during armed conflict. IOM, “Libya — IDP And Returnee Report 37 (May - June 2021),” https://displacement.iom.int/reports/libya-%E2%80%94-idp-and-returnee-report-37-may-june-2021.

Libya: New displacements in Kufra as concerns for IDPs remain high (8 March 2012)One year following the Libyan uprising, IDPs continue to face major protection concerns. At the beginning of 2012 around 60,000 IDPs, principally from Sirte and Bani Walid, returned to their homes. However, UNHCR estimated that there were still over 93,000 IDPs in Libya, a significant proportion of whom are from tribes alleged to be loyal to Qadhafi, such as the Tawergha and Mesheshiya. Human rights organisations report that authorities in and around Misrata have prevented thousands from returning to the towns of Tawergha, Tomina and Kararim. They have further failed to stop local militias from looting and burning homes in these areas, and carrying out reprisal attacks against IDPs who allegedly supported Qadhafi. Many of these IDPs have been subject to abductions, arbitrary detention and torture. Meanwhile, the south-eastern town of Kufra saw inter-ethnic clashes between the Tibu and Zwai tribes. The two groups have a long history of violence, and the Tabu had long complained of discrimination under Qadhafi. This recent event has reportedly resultedin the deaths of at least 100 people, and the displacement of half the population. As of 23 February, there was reportedly no electricity, water or fuel in the town.In a briefing to the UN Security Council at the end of February, the Secretary General’s Special Representative for Libya welcomed the adoption of a national electoral law, but identified the lack of measures to ensure the participation of displaced people in election proceedings.

Libya: Thousands still displaced from Bani Walid and Sirte (25 November 2011)A month since the Libyan interim government declared the country’s liberation on 23 October, many people remain internally displaced and further assistance from international organisations is needed to avoid local coping capacities being overwhelmed. As of 31 October, according to OCHA, an estimated 80,000 people had fled from Bani Walid and Sirte, many of them to areas around Tripoli, Misrata and Benghazi; the International Medical Corps (IMC) reported that some 10,000 people from Sirte city centre had taken refuge on the outskirts of the city. An estimated 30,000 IDPs were spread across the east of Libya. In mid-November, however, the Civil Council of Bani Walid estimated that from 70 to 75 per cent of its population of between 70,000 and 80,000 had returned. Those remaining in displacement were either still living in camps, or with host families or in rented accommodation. Their return seems to be delayed by damage to their homes and their lack of cash. The return of IDPs to Sirte has been slower, as electricity supplies are still limited and the infrastructure has been badly damaged. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross / Red Crescent (ICRC), only an estimated 10,000 people displaced from Sirte had been able to return to their homes by 18 November. Libya: Displacement increases in conflict areas (7 October 2011)The number of people internally displaced by the recent fighting in north-west Libya has increased steadily. By 28 September it had reportedly reached70,000, with many IDPs seeking shelter with host families but others forced to stay out in the open in desperate conditions. By 2 October, the ongoing deterioration of the situation in Sirte had ledabout 10,000 people to leave the city, in vehicles packed with their belongings. At least a third of those displaced are reportedly staying in desert areas within a few kilometres of Sirte.Meanwhile, 50,000 IDPs from tribes known to be loyal to Qadhafi, such as the Tawergha, Qawalish and Mesheshiya, have continuedto face discriminatory treatment. Local authorities in Misrata have reportedly restricted the provision of humanitarian assistance to certain groups of IDPs; they have also been subjected to arbitrary arrests, mistreated and denied the chance to return.In many other conflict-affected parts of Libya the situation has graduallyreturnedto normal, and humanitarian responses have given way to longer-term recovery planning. In eastern Libya, local authorities estimated in late September that the number of IDPs had fallen to around 24,000 from a July total of around 220,000, with most of those still displaced originating from the towns of Brega, Bishr, Al-Alaghia and areas further west such as Ras Lanuf. Libya: Concerns for IDPs and migrants rise as fighting continues (23 September 2011)On 16 September, three weeks after the entry of rebels into the capital Tripoli, the number of people internally displaced by the conflict in Libya was still unknown. Fighting was ongoing in Sirte, Sebha and Bani Walid; on 11 September, transitional government forces had given the residents of Bani Walid two days to leave before the town came under attack, and many left to nearby towns or tented camps in the Souf Aljein Valley. The Misrata Military Council estimated on 20 September that half the 130,000 population of Sirte had fled. ICRC reported on 15 September that around 1,300 people, mainly from Ben Jawad and other towns along the Mediterranean coast west of Ras Lanuf, had also fled their homes and had been living in tents in the desert.The situation of the 25,000 inhabitants of the city of Tawergha to the south of Misrata has raised concern, after they fled to Tripoli and its surroundings in fear of reprisals. When in mid-August the conflict reached the city, Tawergha was completely deserted. Misrata rebels have arrested dozens of male IDPs from Tawergha in Tripoli, and brought them back to Misrata for detention and interrogation. Concerns have also been raised over the situation of migrant workers in Libya. Thousands of migrants, particularly Sub-Saharan Africans, are scattered around the capital and need urgent assistance and protection, as existing racial tensions have been fuelled by the Qadhafi government’s alleged use of African mercenaries. 3,000 migrants have also sought refuge at an IOM transit centre in the southern city of Sebha, where the security situation has rapidly deteriorated.Libya: Number of IDPs falls in eastern areas (15 July 2011)Libya’s internal armed conflict has continued to cause displacement in both the east and west of the country. As of 7 July, UNHCR estimated that around 218,000 people were internally displaced, including 69,000 in opposition-controlled areas, 49,000 around Tripoli and around 100,000 in the Nafusa Mountains. However, as access to these locations is still limited, these figures have not been confirmed and change frequently as populations move. The number of IDPs has reportedly decreased, particularly in Eastern areas where the security situation has improved. According to an inter-agency mission, many of the 70 per cent of the population of Ajdabiya who had fled to Benghazi and elsewhere had returnedby 30 June, and only around 20 per cent of the population remained in displacement. Many returnee families were staying with relatives. In opposition-controlled areas, most IDPs have reportedly received support from host families and communities, while others live in spontaneous settlement sites, including in schools. Meanwhile, the presence of unexploded ordnance in conflict-affected areas has affected the protection of civilians and the ability of IDPs to return home safely.

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